Homeschooling – a worthwhile alternative to the current school system in Germany? (Part 1)

Since I have worked in New Zealand in 2011 for a family that practiced unschooling, I was fascinated by the idea of homeschooling/unschooling. Almost a year ago I have been to New Zealand again and did an interview with Valda (homeschooling) and Ellen (unschooling) about their experiences with homeschooling. I was impressed by the variety of options that homeschooling provides (more on this in part 2).


Back in Germany, I quickly realized that

something is wrong with the current school system in Germany.


It occurred to me that parents are given a choice of school forms and schools, but there is a lack of the right to choose the organization of educational processes. Children also have no say in this matter. As a basis for the non-involvement of children in this discussion, the argument is often that children are not able to decide which form of education is the right one for them. 


But is it really like that? Or is it not rather in the eye of the beholder, what skills are adjudged to children?


If you see children

as competent persons,

with rights and obligations,

as curious, exploring, discovering and asking questions,

who are capable of making decisions, expressing their needs and interests, 

then we let them have a significant role in shaping and designing their own educational process. 


What role do parents have?

Parents decide what they think is best for their children. Parents know the strengths, interests and needs of their children; they know how to motivate them to go on; comfort them when they stumble, catch them and support. Parents give children stability, love, closeness and attention and create by that the soil on which their children can grow.


Parents are experts on their children! Why was this expert status taken away from them? Why are they not allowed to decide on the design of educational processes for their children? For more understanding, it is important to look at the historical background of the development of compulsory education in Germany:


Historical background to compulsory schooling in Germany

Before compulsory schooling was implemented, there was only compulsory education. Children had to be taught and whoever was not able to do that by themselves, had to hire a tutor or sent their children to private schools. But not everyone could afford it and to approach the mass, compulsory schooling was introduced. That was in the 18th century. Almost 100 years ago compulsory schooling was then enshrined in law:


“Only in the deliberations of the Weimar Constitution and the Basic Education Act, the new and still unchanged specifications were formulated since 1919 and in place of compulsory education, compulsory schooling was implemented in Germany for the first time.” (Source: Article 145 of the Constitution of 1919, http: //. 


Compulsory schooling involves attending classes, participating in binding events and excursions. Currently, only students can be exempted from compulsory schooling who are not fit because of disability or illness. 

With compulsory schooling, the state determines the place of learning as well as learning methods. The right to education has been implemented (ALL children should have access to education), but the right to “choose the organization of education” was taken away from parents and children.


There is no denying that back in the days the introduction of compulsory schooling was useful. Children from the countryside, who were working on farms and fields, had the possibility to get education due to compulsory schooling. But as already mentioned before, the law has not been changed for nearly 100 years. Again and again, there are families who are trying to enforce their right to choose what educational organization is the right one for their children.


In 2006 a strictly religious family claimed their right to freedom of religion and religious education but the Federal Constitutional Court dismissed the lawsuit for the liberation of their child of compulsory schooling in the following terms: 


“The parents appealed to their fundamental rights to freedom of belief and religious education of children. This religious education in public schools is not assured “(Source:,Lde/1219872/?LISTPAGE=1219728). 


The religious motivation of the parents is not the important aspect at this point, it’s important that they tried to enforce their “right to choose the organization of education”.


Let’s have a look at the reasons given by the Federal Constitutional Court rejecting the complaint: 


“The public has a legitimate interest to counteract the development of religious or ideological motivated ‘parallel societies’ and integrate minorities. Integration does not only require that the majority of the population does not exclude religious or ideological minorities; it is also required that those do not exclude themselves and do not shut them off to a dialogue with dissidents and different faiths (…) “(source:,Lde/1219872/?LISTPAGE=1219728) 


In this explanation a picture emerges, which is characterized by prejudice and preconceptions, but also by fears and worries (more about that in part 3).


It is generally assumed that home schooling is a danger, namely thata) a religious parallel society will be created because of home schooling,b) minorities are excluded from society because of home schooling,c) families who practice home schooling are not in interaction with their environment. I wonder on what basis these arguments are put forward.

Are there any studies showing that parallel societies are caused by home schooling? Or are there any studies that proof that certain groups distance themselves from society because of home schooling?


A view beyond the horizon – Germany in international comparison

Progress is very important in Germany. In business, new concepts are being tested and develop new models, it goes with the passage of time and adapts to the changing environment and yes, sometimes they even grow beyond themselves. Why is it so difficult to transfer this thinking to the education/school system and be a little more open to alternative concepts and approaches that might be valuable for the progress and welfare of society?


When we look at other (western) countries around the world, then it’s quickly noticeable that Germany is one of the few exceptions where home schooling is illegal: 


Countries where home schooling is permitted:

Europe: Austria, Liechtenstein, France, Portugal, Great Britain, Luxembourg, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Ireland, Poland, Italy, and SpainWorldwide: USA, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia 

European countries where home schooling is NOT allowed:

Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands (there are exceptions for very religious families) 


At this point I wish Germany would think out of the box and ask other countries what their opinion is on home schooling, how to deal with problems and so on and so forth.


Interim conclusion:

  • Children and parents have no right to shape and design the educational process of their children actively
  • Compulsory schooling was implemented in Germany in order to enable all children education
  • Germany is one of the few countries where home schooling is not allowed 


The historical basis is logical and has made education for the general possible. But this argument was indicated 100-200 years ago. But times changed and more questions occur: 


Is compulsory schooling in Germany outdated?

What opportunities are opening up with home schooling?



2 thoughts on “Homeschooling – a worthwhile alternative to the current school system in Germany? (Part 1)

  1. Hi Kiki,

    The general option in Germany about the compulsory school attendance is that it is the only and best way of education. And those who question it and fight for home-/unschooling their beloved children are freaks. Those parents that use the little way of choice to send their children to a private school, confessional school, Waldorf school or Montessori school also leave the path of conformity and become suspicious. But indeed this becomes more and more popular.

    Pretty much the rest of the world allows home-/unschooling. But that’s not evidence enough for a German to question their prohibition of that.

    However instead and before trying to convince the German society about the advantages of home-/unschooling they should be faced with the fact WHY there is the compulsory school attendance. There is a reason why it was introduced. And looking back in the German history it shows that it was not forbidden right from the start to teach children at home. So what happened?

    Let’s face the facts: When and why did it start in Germany that schools became the only place where teaching was allowed and home-/unschooling was forbidden?

    The answer on “when” is: July 6, 1938!
    And out of a sudden every German will shake and have a presentiment now that this doesn’t mean anything good.

    And the answer on why is written – as clear as it can be – in the bill:

    § 1. Allgemeine Schulpflicht. Im Deutschen Reich besteht allgemeine Schulpflicht. Sie sichert die Erziehung und Unterweisung der deutschen Jugend im Geiste des Nationalsozialismus.

    from: Gesetz über die Schulpflicht im Deutschen Reich

    §1. Compulsory schooling. There is compulsory schooling in the German Reich. It secures the education and instruction of German youth in the spirit of the National Socialism.

    I am sure that no German nowadays is aware of this background, of what their closed-minded opinion is really based on.

    Good luck Kiki with convincing them to open their mind. The one who is right never wins. The stupid people will win, by learning something new. The will to share your experience and knowledge will be a win for them.

    You could instead use your energy for going to a country/society that is ahead of them. That might be more satisfying. You know already how life is on the bright side of life. Your choice!

    No matter what you chose to do, you are an enrichment for the people around you!

    • Hi Tom,
      thank you for your comment! Yes, I know, it will be a difficult and long-lasting process to convince Germans that homeschooling is not a ‘devil-option’. But I have hope that one day they will realize that what they are doing is limiting a child’s possibilities to improve and grow. But I disagree on the “when” because compulsory schooling started much earlier (see part 1).
      I chose a profession that is working on little steps leading to a slow change in the world. There will always be change, that’s the only constant we can be sure of. I hope I still will be part of the change that leads us to a better and more open-minded school system!
      Thank you! 🙂

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